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Table 3 Factors associated with HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, identified by negative binomial regressions

From: Pattern and determinants of HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa: bibliometric analysis of 1981 to 2009 PubMed papers

  Univariable Multivariable
Indicator Coefficient (SE) Percent change Coefficient (SE) Percent change
HIV patients 0.59(0.06)*** 80.2 0.51(0.10)*** 66.1
Gross domestic product ns ns ns ns
Education     
   Adult literacy rate 1.33(0.50)** 279.8 ns ns
   Public expenditure on education ns ns ns ns
   Research and development researchers 0.54(0.22)* 71.7 ns ns
   Number of high institutions 0.70(0.14)*** 101.7 ns ns
   Number of indexed journals 0.88(0.11)*** 141.2 0.59(0.16)*** 117.2
Health     
   Physicians per 100,000 population 0.73(0.11)*** 108.2 ns ns
   Total expenditure on health 1.55(0.41)*** 373.2 1.01(0.29)* 173.9
   Private expenditure on health 1.70(0.47)*** 445.0 0.60(0.29)* 81.4
  1. SE-standard error; ns-not significant; * p <.05, **p < .01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Indicators were log-transformed