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Table 3 Univariate GEE regression models of interval (days), probability of >9 and >6 months between viral load measurements

From: Regional differences in rates of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Canada: Insights and implications for antiretroviral care in high income countries

  Interval (days) Gaps of >9 months Gaps of >6 months
Covariates Estimate (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Region       
   Quebec 24.1 (20.2, 28.0) < .0001 1.65 (1.37, 1.98) < .0001 1.71 (1.50, 1.96) < .0001
   Ontario 25.6 (22.2, 28.9) < .0001 1.77 (1.51, 2.08) < .0001 2.14 (1.90, 2.41) < .0001
   BC (reference) 0   1   1  
Age (per 10 years) -7.0 (-8.6, -5.3) < .0001 0.70 (0.65, 0.76) < .0001 0.76 (0.72, 0.81) < .0001
Male -12.9 (-16.9, -8.8) < .0001 0.58 (0.50, 0.68) < .0001 0.62 (0.55, 0.69) < .0001
Caucasian -2.1 (-6.6, 2.4) 0.36 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) 0.01 0.83 (0.71, 0.97) 0.02
Risk factor       
   MSM 2.2 (-1.1, 5.6) 0.19 0.74 (0.61, 0.89) < .01 0.86 (0.75, 0.97) 0.02
   IDU 18.5 (13.1, 23.9) < .0001 2.06 (1.74, 2.44) < .0001 1.80 (1.58, 2.04) < .0001
   Heterosexual 14.3 (9.4, 19.3) < .0001 1.55 (1.26, 1.89) < .0001 1.57 (1.36, 1.81) < .0001
   Endemic country -0.1 (-6.3, 6.1) 0.98 1.05 (0.79, 1.39) 0.74 1.08 (0.89, 1.31) 0.44
   Blood products 6.3 (-3.8, 16.4) 0.22 0.93 (0.52, 1.65) 0.79 1.19 (0.76, 1.89) 0.45
Year of initiating cART       
   >2004 -31.0 (-37.4, -24.6) < .0001 0.36 (0.28, 0.46) < .0001 0.49 (0.41, 0.57) < .0001
   2001-2004 -18.4 (-24.7, -12.1) < .0001 0.62 (0.52, 0.73) < .0001 0.70 (0.61, 0.80) < .0001
   2000 (ref.) 0   1   1  
1st year of cART -36.1 (-37.6, -34.6) < .0001 0.15 (0.13, 0.18) < .0001 0.27 (0.25, 0.30) < .0001
Type of cART       
   NNRTI-based 0   1   1  
   Boosted PI-based -16.7 (-20.0, -13.4) < .0001 0.76 (0.64, 0.89) < .001 0.71 (0.63, 0.80) < .0001
   Single PI-based 5.4 (-0.3, 11.0) 0.06 1.37 (1.12, 1.68) < .01 1.19 (1.02, 1.40) 0.03
   Other cART 6.2 (-0.2, 12.6) 0.06 1.17 (0.89, 1.53) 0.26 1.05 (0.86, 1.27) 0.65
Boosted PI (Y/N) -18.3(-21.4, -15.2) < .0001 0.70 (0.60, 0.81) < .0001 0.68 (0.61, 0.76) < .0001
On cART at current visit -32.2 (-34.9, -29.6) < .0001 0.31 (0.28, 0.35) < .0001 0.38 (0.35, 0.42) < .0001
On cART at previous visit -12.4 (-14.5, -10.3) < .0001 0.58 (0.52, 0.65) < .0001 0.65 (0.61, 0.70) < .0001
Baseline CD4 count       
   >350 cells/mm3 12.7 (7.8, 17.7) < .0001 1.43 (1.19, 1.72) < .001 1.51 (1.31, 1.74) < .0001
   200-350 cells/mm3 2.7 (-0.7, 6.1) 0.12 0.94 (0.80, 1.10) 0.44 0.97 (0.86, 1.09) 0.57
   < 200 cells/mm3 (ref.) 0   1   1  
Baseline VL < 50 copies/mL 17.3 (7.2, 27.3) < .001 1.17 (0.82, 1.67) 0.38 1.47 (1.13, 1.90) < .01
Baseline VL (log10 copies/mL) -7.2 (-9.2, -5.3) < .0001 0.85 (0.79, 0.91) < .0001 0.84 (0.79, 0.88) < .0001
VL <50 copies/mL at previous test 18.3 (16.5, 20.0) < .0001 0.71 (0.64, 0.78) < .0001 1.18 (1.11, 1.26) < .0001
VL (log10 copies/mL) at previous visit -3.1 (-3.9, -2.3) < .0001 1.23 (1.18, 1.28) < .0001 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 0.24
AIDS defining illness -14.1 (-17.5, -10.6) < .0001 0.53 (0.42, 0.68) < .0001 0.59 (0.50, 0.70) < .0001
Hepatitis C co-infection 17.9 (13.0, 22.7) < .0001 2.45 (2.06, 2.91) < .0001 1.98 (1.74, 2.26) < .0001
Positive for HCV antibodies 14.0 (9.3, 18.7) < .0001 2.13 (1.81, 2.50) < .0001 1.64 (1.45, 1.85) < .0001
  1. MSM = men who have sex with men, IDU = injection drug use, cART = combination antiretroviral therapy, NNRTI = non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, PI = protease inhibitor, VL = viral load, HCV = hepatitis C virus