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Table 4 Perceived causes for a cholera vignette in peri-urban and rural Zanzibar, n = 356

From: Social and cultural features of cholera and shigellosis in peri-urban and rural communities of Zanzibar

  Peri-urban site, n = 179   Rural site, n = 177   
  How reported?b   How reported?b   
Categorya Total Reported % Fraction spon. Most important % Mean prominencec Total Reported % Fraction spon. Most important % Mean prominencec  
Ingestion 98.3 0.61 17.3 2.11 96.6 0.37 22.6 2.00 *
Drinking contaminated water 96.1 0.40 10.1 1.65 94.4 0.24 16.4 1.66  
Eating unprotected/spoiled food 95.5 0.45 7.3 1.60 94.4 0.18 5.1 1.27 ***
Eating forbidden food 27.4 0.00 0.0 0.27 54.8 0.00 1.1 0.58 ***
Eating soil 36.9 0.00 0.0 0.37 48.6 0.01 0.0 0.49 *
Behaviour 96.1 0.28 4.5 1.36 94.4 0.44 11.3 1.69 **
Contact with contaminated water 85.5 0.20 1.7 1.07 91.0 0.42 9.6 1.58 ***
Not washing hands 92.2 0.14 2.8 1.13 88.1 0.12 1.7 1.03  
Environment 100.0 0.89 70.9 4.02 98.3 0.68 37.3 2.77 ***
Dirty environment 99.4 0.84 61.5 3.68 96.0 0.62 24.9 2.30 ***
Flies 99.4 0.34 9.5 1.62 94.4 0.28 12.4 1.58  
Malaria 15.1 0.00 0.0 0.15 48.0 0.02 0.0 0.49 ***
Worms 13.4 0.00 0.0 0.13 46.9 0.00 0.0 0.47 ***
Magico-religious causes 94.4 0.07 7.3 1.23 91.0 0.16 28.8 1.92 ***
God's will 93.3 0.07 7.3 1.22 86.4 0.16 27.7 1.83 ***
Witchcraft 20.7 0.00 0.0 0.21 45.8 0.01 1.1 0.50 ***
Miscellaneous 5.0 1.00 0.0 0.10 27.1 1.00 0.0 0.54 ***
Other 3.9 1.00 0.0 0.08 13.6 1.00 0.0 0.27 **
Cannot say 1.1 1.00 0.0 0.02 13.6 1.00 0.0 0.27 ***
  1. a Categories ordered alphabetically within each group (bold), except "cannot say". Categories reported by less than 5% not listed; b Columns indicate percentage of reported categories, fraction of spontaneously mentioned categories and whether a category was identified as most important; c Mean prominence based on values assigned to each reported category (0 = not reported, 1 = reported after probing, 2 = reported spontaneously, 3 = identified as most important).
  2. Wilcoxon test used to compare mean prominence between both sites (* p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001).