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Table 3 Somatic symptoms and psycho-social problems for a cholera vignette in peri-urban and rural Zanzibar, n = 356

From: Social and cultural features of cholera and shigellosis in peri-urban and rural communities of Zanzibar

  Peri-urban site, n = 179   Rural site, n = 177   
  How reported?b   How reported?b   
Categorya Total Reported % Fraction spon. Most troubling % Mean prominencec Total Reported % Fraction spon. Most troubling % Mean prominencec  
Somatic symptoms          
Related to general gastrointestinal illness 98.9 0.81 14.5 2.23 99.4 0.67 16.4 2.15  
Abdominal pain/discomfort 91.1 0.47 2.8 1.42 88.7 0.06 6.2 1.13 ***
Headache 64.8 0.02 0.0 0.66 55.4 0.02 0.6 0.58  
Loss of appetite 92.2 0.20 1.7 1.16 83.6 0.06 1.1 0.92 ***
Nausea 87.7 0.04 0.6 0.93 88.1 0.03 0.6 0.93  
Weakness 96.6 0.69 9.5 1.92 97.7 0.64 7.9 1.84  
Related to shigellosis 97.2 0.20 3.9 1.28 96.0 0.10 13.0 1.45  
Abdominal cramps 76.5 0.11 2.8 0.93 75.1 0.08 6.8 1.01  
Bloody stool 23.5 0.14 0.6 0.28 50.3 0.03 2.8 0.60 ***
Fever 82.7 0.11 0.6 0.93 87.0 0.03 1.7 0.95  
Pus in stool 8.9 0.06 0.0 0.09 37.9 0.00 0.0 0.38 ***
Rectal pain 69.3 0.00 0.0 0.69 73.4 0.00 1.7 0.79  
Related to dehydration 98.3 0.31 46.9 2.70 98.3 0.51 18.6 2.04 **
Confusion 87.7 0.01 2.2 0.95 81.9 0.01 2.3 0.89  
Palpitations 84.4 0.03 9.5 1.16 73.4 0.02 1.7 0.80 ***
Loose skin 90.5 0.17 1.1 1.09 88.1 0.24 0.6 1.11  
Sunken eyes 93.9 0.21 0.6 1.15 96.0 0.41 0.6 1.37 ***
Unconsciousness 92.7 0.04 32.4 1.94 90.4 0.06 11.3 1.30 ***
Very thirsty 76.5 0.03 1.1 0.82 78.5 0.06 2.3 0.90  
Miscellaneous 25.1 1.00 1.7 0.55 38.4 1.00 1.7 0.82 **
Other symptoms 10.1 1.00 1.1 0.23 16.4 1.00 0.6 0.34  
Cannot say 15.1 1.00 0.6 0.32 22.0 1.00 1.1 0.47  
Psycho-social problems          
Social impact 99.4 0.88 36.9 2.97 99.4 0.91 50.3 3.41 **
Disruption of health services 48.0 0.01 1.7 0.54 88.1 0.01 1.7 0.94 ***
Fear of infecting others 83.8 0.28 2.2 1.14 72.9 0.22 6.8 1.09  
Fear of isolation from others 62.6 0.36 8.4 1.10 53.1 0.12 14.7 1.03  
Interference with social relationships 65.4 0.08 3.9 0.82 74.6 0.60 2.8 1.28 ***
Interference with work/daily activities 96.6 0.73 20.7 2.30 97.2 0.72 24.3 2.40  
Emotional impact 100.0 0.75 10.1 2.06 94.9 0.45 11.3 1.72 ***
Sadness, anxiety, worry 100.0 0.75 10.1 2.06 94.9 0.45 11.3 1.72 ***
Financial impact 99.4 0.62 52.5 3.18 99.4 0.73 38.4 2.88  
Costs (transport, food, drugs) 97.2 0.08 34.1 2.07 96.0 0.32 13.6 1.67  
Loss of family income 98.3 0.58 18.4 2.11 92.7 0.52 24.9 2.16  
  1. a Categories ordered alphabetically within each group (bold). Categories reported by less than 5% not listed; b Columns indicate percentage of reported categories, fraction of spontaneously mentioned categories and whether a category was identified as most troubling; c Mean prominence based on values assigned to each reported category (0 = not reported, 1 = reported after probing, 2 = reported spontaneously, 3 = identified as most troubling).
  2. Wilcoxon test used to compare mean prominence between both sites (* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001).