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Table 1 Overview of study sites

From: Social and cultural features of cholera and shigellosis in peri-urban and rural communities of Zanzibar

  Peri-urban site Rural site
Administrative structure   
Community (Shehia) Chumbuni Mwambe
District Urbana Mkoani
Island Unguja Pemba
Population estimates   
Number of inhabitantsb 10,869 8,164
Population density 15,300/km2 800/km2
Environment Unplanned, slum-like extension of the capital, situated along a main road, narrow alleys, sandy ground, few trees and shrubs, few plots for farming Coastline community with widely scattered hamlets, lush green vegetation, livestock, cassava, banana, paddy rice and coconuts
Main housing structure Brick houses, corrugated iron roofs Mud houses, thatched roofs
Access to c (%)   
Electricity 34 6.2
Private or community piped water 84 59
Public wells 8.1 39
Latrines 70 32
No access to toilet facilities 7.0 57
Economy c   
Main economic activities Informal business, government employees Fishing, farming
Monthly median per capita expenditure USD22.6 USD17.5
Annual incidence of cholera per 1,000 population d   
Mean (standard deviation) 2.9 (1.7) 2.5 (6.0)
Median (range) 2.2 (1.3-5.7) 0 (0-14.8)
Annual incidence of shigellosis per 1,000 population e   
Mean (standard deviation) 4.6 (1.6) 1.9 (0.3)
Median (range) 4.9 (2.9-6.1) 2.0 (1.7-2.2)
  1. a Despite belonging to the Urban district, this community is of peri-urban character; bCensus data from cholera control research project, 2008; c District-level data from Zanzibar Household Budget Survey, 2004/5 [16]; d Estimates (2002-2007) from Reyburn et al. (unpublished data) and WHO Cholera Country Profile for Zanzibar, 2006; e District-level estimates (2006-2008) from health facility-based surveillance [14, 36]