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Table 3 Characteristics of patients with acute community-acquired Lm meningitis

From: Three-year multicenter surveillance of community-acquired listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults

Variable a Patients Immunocompromised Immunocompetent p *
Number of patients 43 29 14  
Age (median ± IQR) 69 ± 30 69.5 ± 32 64.5 ± 23 1
Elderly (60 years or older) 24 (56) 16 (55) 8 (58) 0.903
Antibiotic therapy before admission b 3/43 (7) 2/29 (7) 1/14 (7) 0.950
Median time to admission (hours) 48.5 48 49 0.500
Time to admission > 48 h 22/43 (51) 15/29 (52) 7/14 (50) 0.916
Symptoms at presentation     
Seizures 4/43 (9) 3/29 (10) 1/14 (7) 0.735
Headache 29/43 (67) 17/29 (59) 12/14 (85) 0.076
Vomiting 20/43 (46) 12/29 (41) 8/14 (57) 0.331
Neck stiffness 30/43 (70) 17/29 (62) 12/14 (86) 0.114
Temperature ≥ 38°C 39/43 (91) 26/29 (90) 13/14 (93) 0.735
Glasgow Coma Scale at admission (median ± IQR) 13 ± 3 13 ± 5 13 ± 1 0.279
Classic Triad c 21/43 (49) 11/29 (45) 10/14 (71) 0.039
Focal neurological deficit     
   Any 14/43 (32) 8/29 (28) 6/14 (43) 0.317
   Cranial nerve palsies 7/14 (50) 4/8 (50) 3/6 (50) 1
   Large nerve palsies 2/14 (12) 2/8 (25) 0 0.186
   Cerebellum dysfunction 5/14 (38) 2/8 (25) 3/6 (50) 0.334
Laboratory findings     
   Indexes of CSFd inflammation     
WBC count (median ± IQR) 550 ± 2400 936 ± 3610 310 ± 520 0.069
< 100 cells/mL 5/40 (12) 3/27 (11) 2/13 (15) 0.702
100-999 cells/mL 20/40 (50) 11/27 (40) 9/13 (70) 0.091
> 999 cells/mL 15/40 (37) 13/27 (49) 2/13 (15) 0.045
Protein level,g/L (median ± IQR) 2.4 ± 2.7 2.39 ± 2.26 2.88 ± 3.16 0.357
Protein level > 2 g/L 23/43 (53) 17/29 (67) 6/14 (32) 0.331
% PMN (median ± IQR) 70 ± 59 70 ± 62 65 ± 48 0.418
> 50% 27/40 (67) 19/27 (67) 8/13 (61) 0.576
CSF/blood glucose (median ± IQR) 0.26 ± 0.23 0.27 ± 0.25 0.22 ± 0.23 0.243
   CSF Gram stain     
Gram-positive rods 13/43 (30) 9/29 (31) 4/14 (29) 0.869
   Positive CSF culture e 40/43 (93) 26/29 (67) 14/14 0.212
4b serotype 23/28 (82) 12/16 (75) 11/12 (92) 0.355
1/2b serotype 5/28 (18) 4/16 (25) 1/12 (8) 0.254
   Positive blood cultures 27/43 (63) 18/29 (62) 9/14 (63) 0.643
   Blood analytical findings     
WBC count (109/L, (median ± IQR) 12 ± 10 10 ± 11 15 ± 5 0.006
Platelets (109/L, median ± IQR) 182 ± 75 161 ± 87 193 ± 70 0.492
Sodium (mEq/L, median ± IQR) 135.1 ± 4.9 134.2 ± 5 136.9 ± 3.8 0.086
Hyponatremia 19/43 (44) 15/29 (51) 4/14 (28) 0.152
Outcome     
   Unfavorable outcome (GOSf<4) 15/43 (35) 8/29 (27) 7/14 (50) 0.184
   Mortality 12/43 (28) 7/29 (24) 5/14 (35) 0.482
  1. a Results are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise specified
  2. b Use of at least two doses of an oral or parenteral antibiotic within one week of the onset of meningitis.
  3. c Triad of fever, neck stiffness and change in mental status.
  4. d CSF: Cerebrospinal Fluid.
  5. e The serotype identification only was done in 28 patients.
  6. f GOS: Glasgow Outcome Scale.