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Table 3 Multivariate model of risk factors for pneumococcal carriage among adults and children

From: Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens in children and adults: cross-sectional surveys in a population with high rates of pneumococcal disease

Risk factor Adults   Children  
  Category Odds Ratio (95% CI) Category Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Age group 16-24 yrs 1 2-4 yrs 1
  25-34 yrs 1.13 (0.52-2.49) 5-8 yrs 0.65 (0.28-1.54)
  35-44 yrs 2.04 (0.92-4.54) 9-12 yrs 0.43 (0.17-1.08)
  45-54 yrs 1.90 (0.83-4.34) 13-15 yrs 0.13 (0.03-0.56)
  ≥55 yrs 2.19 (0.88-5.50)   
Sex Female 1 n/a  
  Male 2.21 (1.31-3.73)   
Chest infection in previous month No 1 n/a  
  Yes 1.62 (0.98-2.67)   
Runny nose in previous week No 1 No 1
  Yes 1.66 (1.05-2.64) Yes 1.80 (0.98-3.29)
Frequency sitting at an outside fire Never/monthly 1 n/a  
  Most days/weekly 1.23 (0.74-2.05)   
  Every day 6.89 (1.87-25.4)   
H. influenzae detected No 1 No 1
  Yes 6.74 (4.06-11.2) Yes 9.34 (4.71-18.5)
M. catarrhalis detected No 1 No 1
  Yes 3.27 (1.97-5.45) Yes 2.67 (1.34-5.33)
  1. Note: Odds ratios and confidence intervals calculated by logistic regression adjusting for repeated measures on an individual.