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Table 2 Assumptions on resource utilization

From: Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia

Parametersa Baseline estimates Rangesb Distributionsc Sources
Vaccination costs     
   Vaccine price (per dose), $ 3.5 0-10 Triangular [18]
   Vaccine wastage rate,% 10 0-20 Triangular Assumed
   Program costs for vaccine deliveryd (per dose), $ 0.34 0-0.68 Triangular Estimated
Disease treatment costs, $     
   Medical visits     
Cost per hospital bedday 5.01 2.51-7.52 Triangular [49]
Cost per outpatient visit 1.31 0.66-1.97 Triangular [49]
Pneumonia (inpatient) 4.18 3.14-5.23 Triangular [50]
Meningitis 1.19 0.89-1.49 Triangular [50]
Sepsis 4.10 3.08-5.13 Triangular [50]
Pneumonia (inpatient) Age-specific 1.19-3.25 Not varied Estimated
Pneumonia (outpatient) Age-specific 0.04-0.08 Not varied Estimated
Meningitis Age-specific 4.26-14.62 Not varied Estimated
Sepsis Age-specific 6.13-16.68 Not varied Estimated
Direct non-medical costs, $     
   Transportation costs (per travel) 0.41 0.31-0.51 Triangular [56]
   Caregiver's time costse (per disease event)     
Pneumonia, inpatientf 2.16 1.08-3.24 Triangular Estimated
Pneumonia, outpatientg 0.21 0.11-0.32 Triangular Estimated
Meningitis, inpatientf 8.64 4.32-12.96 Triangular Estimated
Sepsis, inpatientf 8.64 4.32-12.96 Triangular Estimated
   Wageh (her hour) 0.09 0.05-0.14 Triangular Estimated
  1. a All cost estimates are expressed in 2005 US dollars.
  2. b The ranges of parameters are for univariate sensitivity analyses and are chosen to be as inclusive as possible based on the literature.
  3. c Because most data sources for costs did not provide enough information, we assumed triangular forms for all cost parameters.
  4. d Delivery costs included all incremental non-recurrent (capital) and recurrent (operational) program costs incurred under the current Gambian immunization system, beyond the purchase cost of the vaccines themselves and vaccine wastage.
  5. e Caregiver's time costs were calculated based on the human capital approach.
  6. f Caregiver's time costs for inpatient care were calculated using the following formula: the estimated average hourly wage ($0.09/hour) × 8 hours/day × average length of stay for each disease event (3 days for pneumonia and 12 days for meningitis and sepsis).
  7. g Caregiver's time costs for outpatient care for pneumonia were calculated using the following formula: the estimated average hourly wage ($0.09/hour) × average time for travel/waiting/treatment at public health facilities in The Gambia (2.3 hours).
  8. h Average hourly wage for The Gambia was estimated based on data from multiple global sources (e.g., World Development Indicators by the World Bank, The CIA Fact Book, and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) taking into account the major industries, employment rate by gender, and size of the workforce in The Gambia.