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Table 4 Results of Analysis Comparing Outcomes: Evaluation Within Groups and Between Treatment Groups.a

From: Clinic-epidemiological evaluation of ulcers in patients with leprosy sequelae and the effect of low level laser therapy on wound healing: a randomized clinical trial

Outcome measure Control group (n = 12) Experimental group (n = 11) Mean difference between groups (95% CI) pvalued
Area (cm2)     
Baseline 5.3 (9.2) 4.2 (5.9) -1.08 (-6.93 to 4.75) .70
After intervention 4.4 (8.5) 3.8 (5.7) -0.63 (-6.10 to 4.84) .81
Mean difference
in change scores
(95% CI)
0.82 (0.00 to 1.66) 0.37 (-0.77 to 1.51)   
p valuec .05 .49   
Depth (mm)     
Baseline 6.3 (5.4) 6.2 (5.1) -0.08 (-4.07 to 3.90) .96
After intervention 5.4 (5.7) 4.1 (3.9) -1.29 (-5.00 to 2.41) .47
Mean difference
in change scores
(95% CI)
0.85 (-0.40 to 2.11) 2.0 (-0.60 to 4.74)   
p valuec .16 .11   
PUSH score b     
Baseline 9.7 (3.4) 9.6 (3.3)   .96e
After intervention 8.4 (5.3) 7.9 (5.3)   .93e
p valuee .09 .24   
  1. aValues are means (SDs) unless otherwise indicated. CI = confidence interval.
  2. b PUSH = Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (ranged from 0 to 17, where 0 indicated a healed wound and 17 indicated an ulcer greater than 24 cm2 in surface area, with a heavy amount of exudate and the presence of necrotic tissue).
  3. cAs determined by a dependent sample t test.
  4. dAs determined by an independent 2-sample t test.
  5. eAs determined by the Mann-Whitney U test.
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