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Table 1 Characteristics of evaluated countries.

From: African meningitis belt pneumococcal disease epidemiology indicates a need for an effective serotype 1 containing vaccine, including for older children and adults

Characteristic Burkina Faso* Senegal* Niger* Ghana*
Surveillance design Prospective Retrospective Retrospective Prospective
Geographic extent Three districts Dakar Niamey Northern area
Surveillance population 880,000 950,000 550,000 140,000
Rural/Urban Both Urban Urban Rural
Study years 2002-2005 1970-1979 1981-1996 1998-2003
Microbiological methods Culture, antigen detection, PCR Culture Culture, antigen detection Culture, antigen detection
Number of confirmed pneumococcal meningitis cases 249 983 934 76
Percent of cases occurring during dry/epidemic season months of Dec-Apr 75% 49% 63% 69%
Two months with peak number of cases (percent of total) Jan-Feb (38%) Feb-Mar (21%) Feb-Mar (31%) Dec-Jan (35%)
Relation of pneumococcal to meningococcal seasonal peak Similar 2 months in advance 1 month in advance 1 to 2 months in advance
13-valent conjugate vaccine coverage of isolated serotypes     
Age <5 years 67% 78% (age<2 yrs) No serotype data 100%
Age 5+ years 77% 94% (age 2+ yrs) No serotype data 98%
Reference 4,5 9 8 7
  1. * Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in pregnant women age 15-24 years in capital city: Burkina Faso 2.3% (2002), Ghana 3.9% (2003), Senegal 1.1% (2003). Adult HIV prevalence in Niger was 1.2% (2003). Website: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/SOWC_2005_(English).pdf, last accessed October 2, 2008.
  2. † In all studies cases per month were estimated from Figures as specific data were not presented.