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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with community-acquired (CAL) and hospital-acquired legionellosis (HAL).a

From: Clinical features and predictors of mortality in admitted patients with community- and hospital-acquired legionellosis: A Danish historical cohort study

  CAL HALb  
Characteristic No. (%) (n = 272)c No. (%) (n = 60)c p-valued
Demographics    
Male sex 181 (66.5) 33 (55.0) 0.09
Age, median years (IQR) 57 (50-70) 67 (57-74) 0.003*
Age group    0.002*
≤ 65 years 185 (68.0) 28 (46.7)  
> 65 years 87 (32.0) 32 (53.3)  
Exposure    
Associated with travelling to another countrye 92 (33.8) 0 (0) <0.001*
Exposure to air-conditioning 33 (12.1) 0 (0) 0.004*
Part of a possible outbreak of legionnaires' disease 2 (0.7) 1(1.7) 0.49
Comorbid illnesses    
Charlson Comorbidity Index    <0.001*
= 0 170 (62.5) 13 (21.7)  
= 1 61 (22.4) 12 (20.0)  
≥ 2 41 (15.1) 35 (58.3)  
Current smoker 147 (54.0) 17 (28.3) 0.002*
Current alcohol abuse 30 (11.0) 7 (11.7) 0.65
Selected symptoms and signs    
Temperature >39.5°C 143 (52.6) 7 (11.7) <0.001*
Depressed consciousness 64 (23.5) 5 (8.3) 0.17
X-ray findings    
Abnormal chest X-ray 250 (91.9) 48 (80.0) 0.001*
Unilateral infiltrate 188 (69.1) 37 (61.7) 0.20
Bilateral infiltrates 54 (19.9) 9 (15.0) 0.36
Severity of illness    
Pneumonia severity index (PSI) risk class    0.74
I 19 (7.0) 3 (5.0)  
II 65 (23.9) 18 (30.0)  
III 76 (27.9) 15 (25.0)  
IV 95 (34.9) 19 (31.7)  
V 15 (5.5) 5 (8.3)  
CURB-65 score    0.62
O 119 (43.8) 21 (35.0)  
I 98 (36.0) 23 (38.3)  
II 39 (14.3) 12 (20.0)  
III 10 (3.7) 3 (5.0)  
IV 2 (0.7) 1 (1.7)  
Diagnosis    
Duration of in-hospital symptoms to relevant diagnostic test for legionellosis, median (IQR) 3 (1-5) 7.5 (4-15.5) <0.001*
Duration of in-hospital symptoms to diagnosis of legionellosis, median (IQR) 5.5 (4-9) 12 (7-17) <0.001*
  1. a See additional file 1 for more baseline characteristics
  2. b Defined as hospital-acquired if the patient had been admitted within the preceding 10 days or if the patient developed symptoms
  3. of legionellosis more than 2 days after hospital admission.
  4. c Totals may not add up to 100% due to missing values
  5. d Differences between the groups were analyzed with χ2 or Fisher's exact test as appropriate for categorical variables.
  6. Continuous variables were compared using two-sample t-test (normal distribution) or Mann-Whitney U-test (non-normal distribution).
  7. e Defined as possible travel-associated if the patient had travelled to a foreign country within 10 days of onset of symptoms.
  8. IQR: Interquartile range.
  9. * P-level < 0.05 is considered statistically significant.