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Table 3 Risk factors of YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 and biotype 1A finding, Finland, 2006.

From: Symptoms and sources of Yersinia enterocolitica-infection: a case-control study

  3-4/O:3 or 2/O:9 Biotype 1A
Number of cases and controls 1 54 cases
133 controls
  98 cases
251 controls
 
  exposed/all 1
-cases
-controls
OR (95%CI) 2 exposed/all 1
-cases
-controls
OR (95%CI) 2
Traveling     
-abroad 22/54
10/133
39.4(5.2-296.7)* 36/97
21/248
8.0(3.8-16.9)*
-in Finland 8/54
38/133
0.5(0.2-1.0) 21/97
78/246
0.6(0.3-1.0)
Eating outside home     
-in a restaurant, coffee house etc. 3 48/53
95/130
6.1(1.4-27.2)* 72/93
164/242
1.8(0.9-3.7)
-in a staff , school or daycare canteen 22/48
30/127
3.5(1.6-7.9)* 36/87
78/232
1.5(0.8-2.7)
Meat and meat products:     
-pork (well done) 46/51
119/132
1.2(0.4-3.4) 84/93
222/239
0.7(0.3-1.6)
-pork (medium or raw) 10/41
4/108
6.6(1.7-24.9)* 3/66
14/166
0.2(0.0-1.6)
-bovine (well done) 42/51
110/132
1.0(0.4-2.5) 77/90
206/233
0.8(0.4-1.7)
-bovine (medium or raw) 10/40
18/110
1.6(0.6-4.3) 14/64
38/173
1.0(0.5-2.2)
-salami 23/51
66/126
0.8(0.4-1.5) 38/86
119/222
0.7(0.4-1.2)
-poultry 48/51
111/126
3.1(0.7-13.8) 81/90
207/240
1.3(0.6-2.9)
-sheep 6/45
17/117
1.6(0.5-5.0) 7/81
22/203
0.8(0.3-2.0)
-game 9/49
25/124
0.8(0.3-2.0) 14/86
65/226
0.5(0.2-0.9)*
Milk and milk products     
-pasteurized 47/52
124/129
0.3(0.1-1.5) 88/97
241/249
0.4(0.1-1.0)*
-unpasteurized 10/46
13/123
2.4(0.9-6.2) 8/85
30/218
0.6(0.2-1.3)
Soybean and soybean products 6/49
22/126
0.6(0.2-1.6) 15/87
37/227
1.2(0.6-2.4)
Fruits and berries     
-domestic 37/52
105/128
0.6(0.3-1.3) 75/89
221/243
0.6(0.3-1.3)
-imported 46/53
112/127
0.9(0.3-2.4) 91/95
210/239
3.5(1.2-10.5)*
Vegetables     
-roots4 35/49
100/129
0.9(0.4-2.0) 77/89
200/237
1.4(0.7-2.9)
-lettuce and cabbage5 44/52
112/129
1.0(0.4-3.0) 84/96
229/240
0.3(0.1-0.8)*
-onion and leek 35/50
98/130
0.8(0.4-1.9) 63/91
193/237
0.5(0.3-1.0)*
-cucumber, tomato, pepper 49/53
127/130
0.2(0.0-1.5) 94/96
245/247
0.4(0.0-5.1)
Washing vegetables 6     
-washing roots 38/39
112/116
0.9(0.1-9.8) 69/72
217/224
0.2(0.0-1.4)
-washing pre-washed roots 34/35
102/108
1.6(0.2-14.3) 60/68
196/206
0.2(0.0-0.6)*
-pealing roots 36/39
98/113
2.2(0.6-8.2) 66/73
185/216
1.3(0.5-3.3)
-washing vegetables other than roots 42/43
112/119
2.7(0.3-23.0) 69/75
223/231
0.1(0.0-0.7)*
-washing pre-washed vegetables other than roots 33/36
101/111
1.3(0.3-5.1) 51/62
196/206
0.1(0.0-0.4)*
  1. 1Cases were included to the source analyses if the onset of symptoms was reported with the accuracy of a couple of days and time from the onset of symptoms to the stool sample was not longer than six weeks. Controls were included if their case was included. For each source group, missing values were omitted per analysis.
  2. 2Only those strata with at least case and one control having non-missing values were included to logistic regression analyses. These omissions were done separately per source.
  3. 3Restaurant, coffee house, hamburger restaurant, chip shop, pizzeria, service station restaurant, snack bar
  4. 4Carrot, Swedish turnip, radish
  5. 5White cabbage, red cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, iceberg lettuce, Chinese cabbage
  6. 6exposed are those who washed vegetables usually or always, compared to those washing them only rarely
  7. * Statistically significant result