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Table 1 Risk factors associated with primary HHV-8 infection.

From: Primary gamma-herpesviral infection in Zambian children

   Unadjusted Analysis Adjusted Analysisb
  Positive/Total No.a p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI)
Socio-Demographic Characteristics     
Gender      
   - Male 41/347 0.20 0.75 (0.48 - 1.17)   
   - Female 50/330   Reference   
Ethnic Group      
   - Nyanja 45/308 0.17 1.47 (0.85 - 2.56)   
   - All others 25/167 0.19 1.52 (0.82 - 2.82)   
   - Bemba 21/202   Reference   
Mothers Education      
   - 0-7 years 45/348 0.69 0.91 (0.59 - 1.42)   
   - 8 or more years 46/329   Reference   
Mothers Employment      
   - Unemployed 78/566 0.60 0.85 (0.45 - 1.59)   
   - Employed 13/109   Reference   
Monthly Income      
   - less than 100,000 ZMK 42/309 0.92 0.66 - 1.59)   
   - more than 100,000 ZMK 49/368   Reference   
Household members      
   - 6 or more 32/247 0.80 0.94 (0.59 - 1.50)   
   - 2 to 5 57/418   Reference   
HIV infection (mother)      
   - Positive 30/149 0.01 1.93 (1.19 - 3.12) 0.66 1.14 (0.63 - 2.08)
   - Negative 61/528   Reference   Reference
Child Characteristics c     
Birth weight of child      
   - less than 3.2 Kg 53/430 0.24 0.76 (0.49 - 1.20)   
   - more than 3.2 Kg 38/244   Reference   
Diarrhea      
   - Ever 36/238 0.32 1.26 (0.80 - 1.99)   
   - Never 54/436   Reference   
Fever      
   - Ever 38/270 0.65 1.11 (0.71 - 1.74)   
   - Never 52/404   Reference   
Cough      
   - Ever 52/371 0.58 1.14 (0.73 - 1.78)   
   - Never 38/303   Reference   
Rashes      
   - Ever 28/143 0.01 1.84 (1.13 - 3.01) 0.10 1.54 (0.92 - 2.56)
   - Never 62/531   Reference   Reference
Malaria      
   - Ever 11/78 0.84 1.07 (0.54 - 2.12)   
   - Never 79/596   Reference   
HIV infection (child)      
   - Positive 16/41 <0.001 4.79 (2.44 - 9.38) 0.002 3.69 (1.64 - 8.32)
   - Negative 75/636   Reference   Reference
EBV infection      
   - Positive 63/399 0.03 1.67 (1.04 - 2.69) 0.14 1.45 (0.89 - 2.36)
   - Negative 28/278   Reference   Reference
Antibiotics      
   - Ever 68/475 0.26 1.34 (0.81 - 2.24)   
   - Never 22/199   Reference   
Traditional therapy      
   - Yes 12/61 0.13 1.68 (0.86 - 3.30)   
   - No 78/613   Reference   
Multivitamin use      
   - Ever 7/32 0.15 1.89 (0.79 - 4.50)   
   - Never 83/642   Reference   
  1. OR- Odds Ratio, CI- Confidence Interval, ZMK- Zambian Kwacha.
  2. aTotal number may not add up to 677 in all categories due to missing values.
  3. bAdjusted analysis includes all variables with p-value ≤ 0.05 in the unadjusted analysis.
  4. cData on lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, oral thrush and hematinics use in the child were also analyzed but not shown in this table.
  5. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios to predict association between primary HHV-8 infection in a cohort of 677 children and socio-demographic characteristics and medical conditions in Lusaka, Zambia, 1998-2004.