(i) Kiviat, 1993 ; (ii) Critchlow, 1998 
(i) Homosexual men attending an STD clinic in Seattle (ii) Homosexual men attending a community-based clinic for HIV screening in Seattle
(i) Age 16–50; being homosexual or bisexual. (ii) Age ≥18; having sex with other men
PCR; primers MY09 and MY11
PCR: 6,11,16,18,31 33, 35,39 and 45
Moscicki, 2003 
Adolescents in primary care centres in 13 US cities who were at high risk of HIV infection
Age 13–18; having high-risk behaviours and/or injecting drug use
PCR, primers MY09, MY11 and HMB01
16,18,31,33,39,42, 44,45,51,52, 56 and 58
MSM from the general population, universities, STD clinics and organized health care systems in Sao Paulo, Cuernavaca, Tampa.
Age 18–70; having no prior penile or anal cancer or genital warts and no current HIV/STD diagnosis
PCR;the QIAamp Media MDx kit (Qiagen); primers PGMY09/11
6,11,16,18,26,31,33, 35,39,40,42,45, 51–56,58,59,61,62,64, 66–73,81-84, IS39 and CP6108
Gilbert, 2011 
MSM recruited from bars, festivals, associations, community events, bathhouses, and businesses in Vancouver
Age ≥19; identifying as a man who has ever had sex with men
PCR; PCR and Linear Array kit (Roche); primers PGMY.
36 types including 6,11,16,18
MSM in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial of HPV vaccination in 14 countries
Age 16–26; having ≤ 5 lifetime male and/or female sexual partners; having had penetrative intercourse, including oral sex
PCR; QIAamp DNA kit (Qiagen); primers based on published L1, E6 and E7 sequences.
6,11,16,18, 31,33,35,39, 45,51,52, 56, 58 and 59