Cryptococcosis mimicking cutaneous cellulitis in a patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis: a case report
© Probst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 18 December 2009
Accepted: 11 August 2010
Published: 11 August 2010
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and the most frequent cryptococcal species found in humans. Cryptococcosis is considered an opportunistic infection as it affects mainly immunosuppressed individuals. In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections: pulmonary cryptococcosis, cryptococcal meningitis and wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis.
An 81-year-old woman developed severe necrotizing cellulitis on her left arm without any preceding injury. The patient had been treated with systemic corticosteroids over twenty years for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Skin biopsies of the wound area were initially interpreted as cutaneous vasculitis of unknown etiology. However, periodic acid Schiff staining and smear analysis later revealed structures consistent with Cryptococcus neoformans, and the infection was subsequently confirmed by culture. After the initiation of therapy with fluconazole 400 mg per day the general condition and the skin ulcers improved rapidly and the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Subsequently surgical debridement and skin grafting were performed.
Opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis can clinically and histologically mimic cutaneous vasculitis and have to be investigated rigorously as a differential diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic encapsulated yeast and the most frequent cryptococcal species found in humans. Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of three variants: C. neoformans var. gattii, var. grubii, and var. neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii is encountered mostly in tropical areas, but C. neoformans var. gattii has been found recently responsible for an ongoing outbreak of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent humans and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada, and surrounding areas [1, 2]. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has now been shown to be different enough from other subspecies for authors suggesting to elevate it to its own species level [3, 4].
Infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii occur predominantly in apparently healthy hosts . Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and var. neoformans have a worldwide distribution. Although, Cryptococcus neoformans being isolated from decaying wood, fruits, vegetables, hay and dust , bird droppings, especially of pigeons, are an important source for cryptococcal infections . Cryptococcosis is considered an opportunistic infection as it affects mainly immunosuppressed individuals [5, 8], for instance of. HIV-infected patients , patients with prolonged glucocorticoid-treatment [10, 11] after organ transplantation [12, 13] or patients with malignancies . However, there are also some reports of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent individuals [15, 16]. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections: pulmonary cryptococcosis, cryptococcal meningitis and wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis . The skin lesions typically appear as pedunculated, dome-shaped papules with an umbilicated center. Approximately 15% of patients with systemic dissemination show secondary involvement of the skin . Skin lesions are found in 5% of patients with cryptococcal meningitis , and the frequency is higher in liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus or in patients infected with serotype D . Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) without systemic infection has been perceived to be a rare distinct clinical entity .
Here we report the case of a female elderly patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, where a cryptococcal cellulitis was initially clinically and histopathologically erroneously diagnosed as a cutaneous vasculitis.
An 81-year-old woman presented with skin ulceration, swelling, erythema and severe pain of her left arm. The skin lesions developed some months earlier and progressed slowly. The patient reported no accidental injury and no fever. The patient lived in a rural area, had no outdoor hobbies and could not remember any insect bites at presentation. The initial lesion was only a point-shaped lesion. In the course, the primary lesion enlarged and developed into an ulcerous lesion. Concomitantly, the patient suffered from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and had been treated with on average 20 mg prednisolone daily for over twenty years by her primary care physician. She had never received any disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. She had no known allergies. She had not travelled for many years and had no close contact to any animals.
Antimycotic therapy with intravenous fluconazole (400 mg daily) was initiated and the empirical intravenous antibiotic therapy deescalated to ceftriaxone. The debris at the base of the ulcera cleared rapidly and after 10 days new formation of granulation tissue was noted on the base of all skin ulcers. The antifungal treatment with daily 400 mg fluconazole was continued orally for further 4 weeks. A follow-up CT scan of the lung after 6 weeks did not reveal any change of the pulmonary lesion. The dose of prednisolone was slowly tapered without a flare of the RA. Three month after the initial admittance and after 6 weeks of rehabilitation, surgical debridement of the necrotic area was performed, and the skin defect was successfully closed with a mesh graft.
As demonstrated by our case report, cutaneous cryptococcal infection can mimic and therefore needs to thoroughly differentiate from rheumatoid vasculitis, which also can manifest with ulcerative skin lesions. Rheumatoid vasculitis typically occurs in patients with long-standing, joint-destructive RA. In one study, the mean duration between the diagnosis of RA and the onset of vasculitis symptoms was 13.6 years . The classic skin lesions of rheumatoid vasculitis are deep cutaneous ulcers on the lower extremities and must be distinguished from pyoderma gangrenosum, which is much less common in RA. In hindsight, the diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis appeared unlikely in our patient due to the absence of rheumatoid factor, which is usually highly elevated in patients with RV [22, 23]. High titers of rheumatoid factor are reported consistently to be the strongest predictor of the development of rheumatoid vasculitis. Rheumatoid vasculitis in a patient with seronegative RA is very rare manifestation and only a paucity of such case reports have been published to our knowledge [24, 25].
Cryptococcus neoformans has been recognized to cause systemic infection in immunocompromised patients for a long time. However, the existence of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis a cryptococcal infection of the skin without prior dissemination, as a distinct entity has been discussed only during the last decades . Neuville et al.  have proposed criteria to distinguish primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis. Criteria for the diagnosis evidence of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis included the absence of signs of disseminated infection and predominantly a solitary skin lesion on unclothed areas of the skin presenting as a whitlow or phlegmon. In addition, patients may present with regional lymphadenopathy. In our case, there was no solitary skin lesion presenting as a withlow or phlegmon, and no history of a skin injury, no participation in outdoor activities and no exposure to bird droppings could be inquired from the patient. On the basis of these data, the disease of our patient should be classified as anatomically limited manifestations of a disseminated disease state and therefore does not represent primary cutaneous cryptococcosis.
The current guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommend amphotericin B based combination therapy with flucytocine as primary induction therapy for all severe forms of disseminated cryptococcal infections (cryptococcosis) followed by fluconazole consolidation therapy . For patients with limited pulmonary cryptococcosis and non-pumonary cryptococcal infections in immunocompetent patients without CNS-involvement initial therapywith fluconazole (400 mg per day) could be considered. Due to the comorbidities and the age of our 81-year-old patient and that there was no evidence for an involvement of the central nervous system or internal organs other than the potentially limited pulmonary involvement, we refrained from administering the standard therapy of amphotericin B and flucytosine for disseminated cryptococcosis . Fortunately, we saw a rapid clinical response to fluconazole in our patient.
In summary, this case report demonstrates that opportunistic infections, such as cutaneous cryptococcosis, can clinically and histologically mimic cutaneous vasculitis. Rheumatoid vasculitis is exceptionally rare in patients with absent rheumatoid factor. Therefore, cutaneous cryptococcosis and other opportunistic infections have to be rigorously investigated as a differential diagnosis in patients with rheumatoid factor negative RA with cutaneous lesions.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
The funding for this case report was provided by intern resource from our department.
- Fraser JA, Giles SS, Wenink EC, Geunes-Boyer SG, Wright JR, Diezmann S, et al: Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature. 2005, 437 (7063): 1360-4. 10.1038/nature04220.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kidd SE, Hagen F, Tscharke RL, Huynh M, Bartlett KH, Fyfe M, et al: A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004, 101 (49): 17258-63. 10.1073/pnas.0402981101.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Faganello J, Dutra V, Schrank A, Meyer W, Schrank IS, Vainstein MH: Identification of genomic differences between Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). Med Mycol. 2009, 47 (6): 584-91. 10.1080/13693780802272148.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bovers M, Hagen F, Kuramae EE, Diaz MR, Spanjaard L, Dromer F, et al: Unique hybrids between the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006, 6 (4): 599-607. 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2006.00082.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Sorrell T, Nimmo G, Speed B, Currie B, Ellis D, et al: Epidemiology and host- and variety-dependent characteristics of infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans in Australia and New Zealand. Australasian Cryptococcal Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2000, 31 (2): 499-508. 10.1086/313992.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lazera MS, Cavalcanti MA, Trilles L, Nishikawa MM, Wanke B: Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii--evidence for a natural habitat related to decaying wood in a pottery tree hollow. Med Mycol. 1998, 36 (2): 119-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haag-Wackernagel D, Moch H: Health hazards posed by feral pigeons. J Infect. 2004, 48 (4): 307-13. 10.1016/j.jinf.2003.11.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christianson JC, Engber W, Andes D: Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Med Mycol. 2003, 41 (3): 177-88. 10.1080/1369378031000137224.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM: Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS. 2009, 23 (4): 525-30. 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328322ffac.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jasch KC, Hermes B, Scheller U, Harth W: Pyoderma gangrenosum-like primary cutaneous cryptococcosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2008, 88 (1): 76-7. 10.2340/00015555-0328.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu HC, Yang YY, Huang YL, Chen TL, Chuang CL, Lee FY, et al: Disseminated cryptococcosis initially presenting as cellulitis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007, 70 (6): 249-52. 10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70368-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh N, Dromer F, Perfect JR, Lortholary O: Cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients: current state of the science. Clin Infect Dis. 2008, 47 (10): 1321-7. 10.1086/592690.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Vilchez RA, Fung J, Kusne S: Cryptococcosis in organ transplant recipients: an overview. Am J Transplant. 2002, 2 (7): 575-80. 10.1034/j.1600-6143.2002.20701.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reisfeld-Zadok S, Elis A, Szyper-Kravitz M, Chowers M, Lishner M: Cryptococcal meningitis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Isr Med Assoc J. 2009, 11 (7): 437-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Revenga F, Paricio JF, Merino FJ, Nebreda T, Ramirez T, Martinez AM: Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host: case report and review of the literature. Dermatology. 2002, 204 (2): 145-9. 10.1159/000051835.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mirza SA, Phelan M, Rimland D, Graviss E, Hamill R, Brandt ME, et al: The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2003, 36 (6): 789-94. 10.1086/368091.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dromer F: Cryptococcosis. Rev Prat. 2001, 51 (7): 738-41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neuville S, Dromer F, Morin O, Dupont B, Ronin O, Lortholary O: Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis: a distinct clinical entity. Clin Infect Dis. 2003, 36 (3): 337-47. 10.1086/345956.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kwon-Chung KJ, Sorrell TC, Dromer F, Fung E, Levitz SM: Cryptococcosis: clinical and biological aspects. Med Mycol. 2000, 38 (Suppl 1): 205-13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naka W, Masuda M, Konohana A, Shinoda T, Nishikawa T: Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis and Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1995, 20 (3): 221-5. 10.1111/j.1365-2230.1995.tb01306.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scott DG, Bacon PA, Tribe CR: Systemic rheumatoid vasculitis: a clinical and laboratory study of 50 cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 1981, 60 (4): 288-97.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scott DG, Bacon PA, Allen C, Elson CJ, Wallington T: IgG rheumatoid factor, complement and immune complexes in rheumatoid synovitis and vasculitis: comparative and serial studies during cytotoxic therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 1981, 43 (1): 54-63.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Voskuyl AE, Zwinderman AH, Westedt ML, Vandenbroucke JP, Breedveld FC, Hazes JM: Factors associated with the development of vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis: results of a case-control study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996, 55 (3): 190-2. 10.1136/ard.55.3.190.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Geirsson AJ, Sturfelt G, Truedsson L: Clinical and serological features of severe vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis: prognostic implications. Ann Rheum Dis. 1987, 46 (10): 727-33. 10.1136/ard.46.10.727.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mongan ES, Cass RM, Jacox RF, Vaughen JH: A study of the relation of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis to each other and to necrotizing vasculitis. Am J Med. 1969, 47 (1): 23-35. 10.1016/0002-9343(69)90238-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, Goldman DL, Graybill JR, Hamill RJ, et al: Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. 2010, 50 (3): 291-322. 10.1086/649858.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/10/239/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.